Frontiers in Neuroscience - P. Peretto - E. Boda and A. Buffo

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09/05/2014
Frontiers in Neuroscience - P. Peretto - E. Boda and A. Buffo

9 May 2014

How neurogenesis finds its place in a hardwired sensory system

Livio Oboti1 and Paolo Peretto2

So far most studies on adult neurogenesis aimed to unravel mechanisms and molecules regulating the integration of newly generated neurons in the mature brain parenchyma. The exceedingly abundant amount of results that followed, rather than being beneficial in the perspective of brain repair, provided a clear evidence that adult neurogenesis constitutes a necessary feature to the correct functioning of the hosting brain regions. In particular, the rodent olfactory system represents a privileged model to study how neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis interact with sensory functions. Until recently, the vomeronasal system (VNS) has been commonly described as being specialized in the detection of innate chemosignals.

Accordingly, its circuitry has been considered necessarily stable, if not hard-wired, in order to allow stereotyped behavioral responses. However, both first and second order projections of the rodent VNS continuously change their synaptic connectivity due to ongoing postnatal and adult neurogenesis. How the functional integrity of a neuronal circuit is maintained while newborn neurons are continuously added—or lost—is a fundamental question for both basic and applied neuroscience. The VNS is proposed as an alternative model to answer such question. Hereby the underlying motivations will be reviewed. [read full article]

1Children's National Health System, Center for Neuroscience Research, Washington, DC, USA
2Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, Neuroscience Institute Cavalieri Ottolenghi, University of Torino, Orbassano, Italy

frontiers_no_scritta

23 May 2014

Beyond cell replacement: unresolved roles of NG2-expressing progenitors

Enrica Boda and Annalisa Buffo*

enrica_sito

NG2-expressing parenchymal precursors (NG2+p) serve as primary source of myelinating oligodendrocytes in both the developing and adultCentral Nervous System (CNS). However, their abundance, limited differentiation potential at adult stages along with stereotypic reaction to injury independent of the extent of myelin loss suggest that NG2+p exert functions additional to myelin production. In support of this view, NG2+p express a complex battery of molecules known to exert neuromodulatory and neuroprotective functions.

Further, they establish intimate physical associations with the other CNS cell types, receive functional synaptic contacts and possess ion channels apt to constantly sense the electrical activity of surrounding neurons. These latter features could endow NG2+p with the capability to affect neuronal functions with potential homeostatic outcomes. Here we summarize and discuss current evidence favoring the view that NG2+p can participate in circuit formation, modulate neuronal activity and survival in the healthy and injured CNS, and propose perspectives for studies that may complete our understanding of NG2+p roles in physiology and pathology. [read full article]

*Department of Neuroscience Rita Levi-Montalcini, Neuroscience Institute Cavalieri Ottolenghi, University of Turin, Turin, Italy

Agenda

21 settembre 2018

NICO Progress Report - INN Open Neuroscience Forum

I nostri giovani ricercatori aggiornano i colleghi sulle loro ricerche. Appuntamento ogni due venerdì.

26 settembre 2018

Vision4D - Analisi quantitativa delle immagini in 3D

Workshop applicativo con Maurizio Abbate (ARIVIS) e Ferdinando Di Cunto (NICO).

16 febbraio 2019

Torino - 10th International Meeting STEROIDS and NERVOUS SYSTEM

Since 2001, this meeting represented an important event for basic and clinical researchers working on this emerging scientific topic. We will address state-of-the-art approaches in the field of steroids and nervous system, including behavior, epigenetics, genomic and non-genomic actions, the vitamin D, neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, and the interference among endocrine disruptors and steroid signaling.

Ricerca

EJN: una pubblicazione a firma NICO tra le migliori 10 italiane degli ultimi anni

Lo studio, pubblicato nel 2015 dal nostro gruppo di Rigenerazione dei Nervi guidato dal prof. Stefano Geuna, è stato inserito tra le migliori 10 pubblicazioni ‘pioneristiche e originali’ di ricercatori italiani selezionate dal prestigioso European Journal of Neuroscience tra quelle pubblicate negli ultimi anni.

11 settembre 2018